Israel deliberately forgets its history
Israel deliberately forgets its history

Israel deliberately forgets its history

Israel deliberately forgets its history.

An Israeli historian suggests the diaspora was the consequence, not of the expulsion of the Hebrews from Palestine, but of proselytising across north Africa, southern Europe and the Middle East

by Schlomo Sand

Le Monde diplomatique Israel deliberately forgets its history↑

Every Israeli knows that he or she is the direct and exclusive descendant of a Jewish people which has existed since it received the Torah (1) in Sinai. According to this myth, the Jews escaped from Egypt and settled in the Promised Land, where they built the glorious kingdom of David and Solomon, which subsequently split into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. They experienced two exiles: after the destruction of the first temple, in the 6th century BC, and of the second temple, in 70 AD.

Two thousand years of wandering brought the Jews to Yemen, Morocco, Spain, Germany, Poland and deep into Russia. But, the story goes, they always managed to preserve blood links between their scattered communities. Their uniqueness was never compromised.

At the end of the 19th century conditions began to favour their return to their ancient homeland. If it had not been for the Nazi genocide, millions of Jews would have fulfilled the dream of 20 centuries and repopulated Eretz Israel, the biblical land of Israel. Palestine, a virgin land, had been waiting for its original inhabitants to return and awaken it. It belonged to the Jews, rather than to an Arab minority that had no history and had arrived there by chance. The wars in which the wandering people reconquered their land were just; the violent opposition of the local population was criminal.

This interpretation of Jewish history was developed as talented, imaginative historians built on surviving fragments of Jewish and Christian religious memory to construct a continuous genealogy for the Jewish people. Judaism’s abundant historiography encompasses many different approaches.

But none have ever questioned the basic concepts developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Discoveries that might threaten this picture of a linear past were marginalised. The national imperative rejected any contradiction of or deviation from the dominant story. University departments exclusively devoted to “the history of the Jewish people”, as distinct from those teaching what is known in Israel as general history, made a significant contribution to this selective vision. The debate on what constitutes Jewishness has obvious legal implications, but historians ignored it: as far as they are concerned, any descendant of the people forced into exile 2,000 years ago is a Jew.

Nor did these official investigators of the past join the controversy provoked by the “new historians” from the late 1980s. Most of the limited number of participants in this public debate were from other disciplines or non-academic circles: sociologists, orientalists, linguists, geographers, political scientists, literary academics and archaeologists developed new perspectives on the Jewish and Zionist past. Departments of Jewish history remained defensive and conservative, basing themselves on received ideas. While there have been few significant developments in national history over the past 60 years (a situation unlikely to change in the short term), the facts that have emerged face any honest historian with fundamental questions.

Founding myths shaken
Is the Bible a historical text? Writing during the early half of the 19th century, the first modern Jewish historians, such as Isaak Markus Jost (1793-1860) and Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), did not think so. They regarded the Old Testament as a theological work reflecting the beliefs of Jewish religious communities after the destruction of the first temple. It was not until the second half of the century that Heinrich Graetz (1817-91) and others developed a “national” vision of the Bible and transformed Abraham’s journey to Canaan, the flight from Egypt and the united kingdom of David and Solomon into an authentic national past. By constant repetition, Zionist historians have subsequently turned these Biblical “truths” into the basis of national education.

But during the 1980s an earthquake shook these founding myths. The discoveries made by the “new archaeology” discredited a great exodus in the 13th century BC. Moses could not have led the Hebrews out of Egypt into the Promised Land, for the good reason that the latter was Egyptian territory at the time. And there is no trace of either a slave revolt against the pharaonic empire or of a sudden conquest of Canaan by outsiders.

Nor is there any trace or memory of the magnificent kingdom of David and Solomon. Recent discoveries point to the existence, at the time, of two small kingdoms: Israel, the more powerful, and Judah, the future Judea. The general population of Judah did not go into 6th century BC exile: only its political and intellectual elite were forced to settle in Babylon. This decisive encounter with Persian religion gave birth to Jewish monotheism.

Then there is the question of the exile of 70 AD. There has been no real research into this turning point in Jewish history, the cause of the diaspora. And for a simple reason: the Romans never exiled any nation from anywhere on the eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean. Apart from enslaved prisoners, the population of Judea continued to live on their lands, even after the destruction of the second temple. Some converted to Christianity in the 4th century, while the majority embraced Islam during the 7th century Arab conquest.

Most Zionist thinkers were aware of this: Yitzhak Ben Zvi, later president of Israel, and David Ben Gurion, its first prime minister, accepted it as late as 1929, the year of the great Palestinian revolt. Both stated on several occasions that the peasants of Palestine were the descendants of the inhabitants of ancient Judea (2).

Proselytising zeal
But if there was no exile after 70 AD, where did all the Jews who have populated the Mediterranean since antiquity come from? The smokescreen of national historiography hides an astonishing reality. From the Maccabean revolt of the mid-2nd century BC to the Bar Kokhba revolt of the 2nd century AD, Judaism was the most actively proselytising religion. The Judeo-Hellenic Hasmoneans forcibly converted the Idumeans of southern Judea and the Itureans of Galilee and incorporated them into the people of Israel. Judaism spread across the Middle East and round the Mediterranean. The 1st century AD saw the emergence in modern Kurdistan of the Jewish kingdom of Adiabene, just one of many that converted.

The writings of Flavius Josephus are not the only evidence of the proselytising zeal of the Jews. Horace, Seneca, Juvenal and Tacitus were among the Roman writers who feared it. The Mishnah and the Talmud (3) authorised conversion, even if the wise men of the Talmudic tradition expressed reservations in the face of the mounting pressure from Christianity.

Although the early 4th century triumph of Christianity did not mark the end of Jewish expansion, it relegated Jewish proselytism to the margins of the Christian cultural world. During the 5th century, in modern Yemen, a vigorous Jewish kingdom emerged in Himyar, whose descendants preserved their faith through the Islamic conquest and down to the present day. Arab chronicles tell of the existence, during the 7th century, of Judaised Berber tribes; and at the end of the century the legendary Jewish queen Dihya contested the Arab advance into northwest Africa. Jewish Berbers participated in the conquest of the Iberian peninsula and helped establish the unique symbiosis between Jews and Muslims that characterised Hispano-Arabic culture.

The most significant mass conversion occurred in the 8th century, in the massive Khazar kingdom between the Black and Caspian seas. The expansion of Judaism from the Caucasus into modern Ukraine created a multiplicity of communities, many of which retreated from the 13th century Mongol invasions into eastern Europe. There, with Jews from the Slavic lands to the south and from what is now modern Germany, they formed the basis of Yiddish culture (4).

Prism of Zionism
Until about 1960 the complex origins of the Jewish people were more or less reluctantly acknowledged by Zionist historiography. But thereafter they were marginalised and finally erased from Israeli public memory. The Israeli forces who seized Jerusalem in 1967 believed themselves to be the direct descendents of the mythic kingdom of David rather than – God forbid – of Berber warriors or Khazar horsemen. The Jews claimed to constitute a specific ethnic group that had returned to Jerusalem, its capital, from 2,000 years of exile and wandering.

This monolithic, linear edifice is supposed to be supported by biology as well as history. Since the 1970s supposedly scientific research, carried out in Israel, has desperately striven to demonstrate that Jews throughout the world are closely genetically related.

Research into the origins of populations now constitutes a legitimate and popular field in molecular biology and the male Y chromosome has been accorded honoured status in the frenzied search for the unique origin of the “chosen people”. The problem is that this historical fantasy has come to underpin the politics of identity of the state 
of Israel. By validating an essentialist, 
ethnocentric definition of Judaism it encourages a segregation that separates Jews from non-Jews – whether Arabs, Russian immigrants or foreign workers.

Sixty years after its foundation, Israel refuses to accept that it should exist for the sake of its citizens. For almost a quarter of the population, who are not regarded as Jews, this is not their state legally. At the same time, Israel presents itself as the homeland of Jews throughout the world, even if these are no longer persecuted refugees, but the full and equal citizens of other countries.

A global ethnocracy invokes the myth of the eternal nation, reconstituted on the land of its ancestors, to justify internal discrimination against its own citizens. It will remain difficult to imagine a new Jewish history while the prism of Zionism continues to fragment everything into an ethnocentric spectrum. But Jews worldwide have always tended to form religious communities, usually by conversion; they cannot be said to share an ethnicity derived from a unique origin and displaced over 20 centuries of wandering.

The development of historiography and the evolution of modernity were consequences of the invention of the nation state, which preoccupied millions during the 19th and 20th centuries. The new millennium has seen these dreams begin to shatter.

And more and more academics are analysing, dissecting and deconstructing the great national stories, especially the myths of common origin so dear to chroniclers of the past.

Schlomo Sand

Translated by Donald Hounam
subscribe to our digital edition
Subscription offer

Wherever you are in the world, you can subscribe to receive:
☛ The issue in digital, pdf, and ebook form.
☛ Online access to our English language archives since 1996
☛ Ebooks on topical themes.
Subscribe now for independent, international journalism that comes right from the source.
Subscribe for £2.70 $3.40 3 € each month
Shlomo Sand is professor of history at Tel Aviv university and the author of Comment le people juif fut inventé (Fayard, Paris, 2008)

(1) The Torah, from the Hebrew root yara (to teach) is the founding text of Judaism. It consists of the first five books of the Old Testament (the Pentateuch): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

(2) See David Ben Gurion and Yitzhak Ben Zvi, Eretz Israel in the past and present, 1918 (in Yiddish), and Jerusalem, 1980 (in Hebrew); Yitzhak Ben Zvi, Our population in the country, Executive Committee of the Union for Youth and the Jewish National Fund, Warsaw, 1929 (in Hebrew).

(3) The Mishnah, regarded as the first work of rabbinic literature, was drawn up around 200 AD. The Talmud is a synthesis of rabbinic discussions on the law, customs and history of the Jews. The Palestinian Talmud was written between the 3rd and 5th centuries; the Babylonian Talmud was compiled at the end of the 5th century.

(4) Yiddish, spoken by the Jews of eastern Europe, was a Germano-Slavic language incorporating Hebrew words.

FRANÇAIS Comment fut inventé le peuple juif
ESPAÑOL Cómo se inventó el pueblo judío
ENGLISH Israel deliberately forgets its history
ESPERANTO Kiel elpensiĝis la juda popolo ?
فارسى چگونگي برساختن قوم يهود
PORTUGUÊS DO BRASIL A complexa gênese do povo judeu

share this article

September 2008

Previous article
« Syria doesn’t want to be a haven »

Next article
« The black hole of Bosnia »
top stories

Switzerland: not so neutral now?
Angélique Mounier-Kuhn, July 2023
Switzerland prides itself on its neutrality, but the war in Ukraine has raised tough questions. On issues from sanctions to arms shipments, it’s revealing the cracks in the Swiss consensus. →

Water is more than a common good
Franck Poupeau, July 2023
Is storing water the real answer?
Sylvain Leder, July 2023
Grenoble demands ‘water not microchips!’
Raúl Guillén & Vincent Peyret, July 2023

How strategic are France’s relations with India?
Christophe Jaffrelot, July 2023
India’s prime minister Narendra Modi was long persona non grata in the US, but President Biden invited him on a state visit in June. President Macron has done the same for Bastille Day, rolling out the red carpet for Modi. Why such eagerness to cosy up to so authoritarian a leader? →

Current issue: July 2023
… Middle East, a new feminism is in the air; Captagon, Syria’s latest drug of choice; special report, what to do about water: its use is a political issue, more than a common good; how toxic waste on the high seas caused a maritime disaster in Sri Lanka; South Korea where the work never stops; Ukraine war, Estonia rearms against Russian invasion; can Switzerland remain neutral? Alexander the Great, a man for our times; Africa’s gospel music is an urban hit…

In Colombia, ‘the time has come to govern properly’
outside in • Renaud Lambert, 11 July 2023
Colombia has a problem — not all of Colombia, but its elites. The country’s first leftwing president, Gustavo Petro, in office since 7 August 2022, actually intends to ‘implement the government programme the (…) →

Alexander the Great, between Asia and Europe
Maya Jaggi, July 2023
A bold new exhibition at Naples’ revitalised archaeological museum (MANN) presents empire-builder Alexander the Great as a man open to cultural exchange with the East. →

Where are the women peacemakers?
Sanam Naraghi Anderlini, August 2020
Who should be but isn’t at the peace talks table for the many wars afflicting the daily lives of millions? Women. They do the work on the ground but are cut out of negotiations for (…) →

Estonia rearms for fear of Russian invasion
Damien Lefauconnier, July 2023
Anticipating a Russian invasion, Estonia is rapidly rearming, even if doubling its defence budget risks making its social and economic problems worse. The Russian minority are keeping a low profile. →

African Christian music goes urban
Jean-Christophe Servant, July 2023
Water stress
Cécile Marin, July 2023
Major incidents of water-related violence since 2000s
C. M., July 2023

Middle East’s drug of choice
Clément Gibon, July 2023
Captagon, a psychotropic drug that’s cheap to produce, is very big business. And it has attracted the Assad regime. →
July: the longer view
July 2023
The theatre of memory
Milan Kundera, May 2003
Milan Kundera’s new novel Ignorance was published in English last autumn by Faber & Faber; it has just been published in French, by Gallimard. These are passages from an essay in progress about the (…) →
The fiction of resistance
Guy Scarpetta, June 2005
Milan Kundera has died in Paris at the age of 94. Born in Brno, he exiled himself to France in 1975, after having been cast out of the communist party of Czechoslovakia. Kundera identified as a novelist (…) →

How can we avoid water wars?
Akram Belkaïd, July 2023
Percentage of population with no guaranteed access to safe drinking water Percentage of population with no guaranteed access to safe drinking water Cécile Marin Climate change could well lead to armed conflict over water resources (…) →

Middle East: a new feminism is in the air
Hicham Alaoui, July 2023
A new generation of feminists sees women’s rights as part of a wider democratic struggle –beyond class and across religious-secular divides. →

The Meloni way
Benoît Bréville, July 2023
Last summer’s commotion has been forgotten. European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen had threatened Italians with consequences if they elected Giorgia Meloni. But now, the two (…) →

South Korea: the ‘Land of Morning Calm’ is working itself to death
R. L., July 2023
South Korea is often held up as a model of modern technological capitalism. But daily life for many South Koreans is much harsher than the glossy image projected by its popular (…) →

We can’t breathe either
Laurent Bonelli, July 2020
Only 20% of the French police’s work is dealing with crime. Their real job is maintaining whatever the ruling powers have decided should be the prevailing social order. Hence the current reaction (…) →

Thirty years a neocon provocateur
Eric Alterman, March 2019
US president Joe Biden has appointed Elliott Abrams to his country’s Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. During the Trump presidency, then–secretary of state Mike Pompeo (…) →

Toxic spills threaten marine ecosystem
Mohamed Larbi Bouguerra, July 2023
The X-Press Pearl sank off Sri Lanka two years ago, releasing a toxic cocktail of chemicals and plastics into the sea, the biggest disaster of its kind. Only tough regulation can prevent a repeat. →

Moonies embedded in Japanese political life
Yuta Yagishita, June 2023
The Unification Church’s far-reaching links with the party of Japan’s former prime minister Shinzo Abe led to his assassination, but the (…) →

The battle for Chile
July 2023
In the early 1970s, Chile’s journey down a ‘democratic road to socialism’ under Salvador Allende was an object of fascination for the left. Then, on 11 September 1973, General Pinochet’s coup d’état shocked the world. More recently, progressive forces (…) →

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *